Benefits of Solid CBN Inserts

The benefits of solid CBN inserts are numerous and are evident in a number of industries. Compared to diamonds, they have greater chemical and thermal stability, and are much easier to form and press. These benefits have increased productivity and improved surface finish. These qualities have led to the widespread use of solid CBN inserts in the gear and bearing industries. If you’re considering purchasing solid CBN inserts for your next project, consider these benefits.

Better thermal and chemical stability than diamonds

Better thermal and chemical stability than diamonds

A cost-effective alternative to diamond tools, polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) inserts have superior toughness and hardness. As a result, they are more resistant to chemical attacks and can remain hard even at high temperatures. In contrast, diamond begins to decompose at 800degC. In addition, they are compatible with standard tool holders.

Boron nitride is a composite material that has properties similar to diamond, but is not found in nature. The technology that created diamonds also produced CBN. First synthesized in 1957 by scientists from General Electric, CBN was introduced to the market under the trade name Borazon. The initial cost was prohibitive, but with the resulting superior properties, it soon became a popular alternative for diamond-based tools.

Easier to press and form

A solid CBN insert is easier to press and form than a conventional carbide insert. Solid CBN inserts have a lower surface roughness and are more resistant to corrosion. They also have a longer tool life than carbide inserts. The surface roughness of a workpiece is a factor in determining the material’s forming characteristics. Solid CBN inserts are more difficult to press.

The solid CBN insert, also known as full CBN, is composed of micron-sized particles of CBN with a bond material. This type of insert is less expensive to press and offers more cutting edges per insert. Its high microhardness and heat resistance makes it an excellent choice for machining ferrous materials, particularly cast iron and nodular steel. In addition to being harder, Solid CBN inserts also have higher wear resistance.

Increased productivity

Solid CBN inserts are designed for use in machining applications requiring high cutting and wear resistance. They are available in two grades, BXA10 and BXA20. BXA10 inserts are designed for light to medium interrupted machining of hardened steel parts, while BXA20 inserts are optimized for use in continuous and interruptive applications. Both grades feature exceptional wear resistance and machining efficiency.

Full CBN inserts are made from micron-sized powdered boron nitride and a bond material. Because they are made of CBN, they are easier to press and reduce overall production costs. Unlike carbide inserts, solid CBN inserts offer 510 times the machining efficiency. They can be used in machining applications involving cast iron, such as brake Disc, drum, and rolls.

Improved surface finish

The surface finish and cutting forces of solid CBN inserts are closely related to their nose radius. This study shows that the percentage of CBN content in cutting tool material and the work material’s hardness play a significant role in determining the overall performance of a solid CBN insert. It also shows the comparative performance of three different CBN insert grades at various workpiece hardnesses. The results were obtained through a desirability analysis, which identifies the optimum parameters based on multiple responses.

Conclusion:

Edge preparation plays a vital role in improving the surface finish of solid CBN inserts. While CBN is typically recommended for high-speed cutting with high-pressure applications, sharp edges can chip or break. This can be an issue for many applications, including internal boring, but it can also be a problem caused by machine limitations or workpiece clamping. A good way to protect the edge of solid CBN inserts while maintaining a high-quality surface finish is to add a coating to the cutting edges. Physical vapour deposition coating can improve the wear resistance and increase tool life.

Why is a Tablet Binder Necessary for Granulation?

The composition of a drug product can be complex. It includes several components: diluent, filler, and disintegrant. Let’s take a look at these components. Each component contributes to the final product’s stability. Its role is critical for the production of effective medication. What makes a tablet binder useful? In this article, we’ll discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each.

Disintegrant

Disintegrant

The granules formed in the granulating process need a disintegrant agent to be effective. Disintegrants are substances that release carbon dioxide upon contact with water. The simplest disintegrants consist of solid chemical compounds such as citric acid, tartaric acid, or tartaric carbonate. In order to dissolve rapidly, these materials must be exposed to a low level of compression pressure. In addition, starches must be able to wick water and body fluid, so their concentration is crucial. High concentrations of starch are often difficult to compress into a tablet.

The disintegrant adds lubrication properties to the tablets and granules so they can disintegrate more rapidly in the gastrointestinal tract after administration. Disintegrants can be added to a tablet before granulation, during the lubrication step prior to compression, or in both steps. Since granulation produces solid compacts, disintegrants must be designed with caution.

Diluent

The quality of the diluent tablet binder plays a critical role in determining the final tablet feature. Too much or too little granulating liquid results in hard or fragile granules. The right amount of granulating liquid reduces the viscosity and ensures better spreading. The right amount of PVP or a similar diluent should be used in small quantities.

Traditionally, gelatin has been used as a diluent tablet binder. However, gelatin has a higher tendency to increase the particle size. It forms liquid bridges and leads to enlargement. Microcrystalline cellulose, on the other hand, does not have the same effect and does not form liquid bridges. The result was significantly larger SGS particles than SMS.

Another consideration is the mixing time. A higher wet mass time will produce hard granules that may not be suitable for direct compression tabletting. However, a lower wet mass time will result in tablets with the desired flowability and low dustability properties. These properties are critical for achieving high filling weight and uniform coverage in tablet formulations. Further, a hard tablet can be more difficult to manufacture if it is not hard enough to be molded.

Flow aid

Flow aids are important for ensuring uniform distribution of a drug during tablet granulation. The degree of compression affects the amount of air that can be sucked into the tablet, and it can also influence the time needed for the drug to dissolve in the tablet. A DEM can simulate the process of granulation by providing important parameters for accurate descriptions of unit operations. This thesis demonstrates the utility of DEM simulation for granulation, Check out this site.

In addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), a drug formulation will contain various other materials. A tablet formulation will typically contain a bulking agent, an API, and several excipients to improve the quality of the resulting tablet. Excipients are added to aid in tablet rigidity, dissolution, and the flow of the powder through the granulation process. However, the amount and type of excipients needed to make tablets will determine whether a specific flow aid is necessary.

Filler

Various types of fillers are used in the manufacturing of tablets. The most common ones are lactose, glucose, sucrose, mannitol, calcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate. However, cellulose derivatives have also been used in tablet manufacturing. A suitable filler is tasteless, palatable, and compatible with active pharmaceutical ingredients. It also should be capable of carrying a high concentration of API.

After separating the fine particulate drug from the binder and filler, the resulting mass is then dry-mixed. The final step involves the addition of common excipients such as disintegrants, lubricants, and colourants. Figure 30.5 shows the sequence of unit operations in the granulation process. It is important to note that each type of drug substance presents different challenges when it comes to granulation.

Conclusion:

MS is a highly-molecular-weight polymeric carbohydrate consisting of large numbers of glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. Amylose and amylopectin comprise approximately twenty-eight percent of the total MS. Amylopectin’s short chains form double-helices and give starch granules a semi-crystalline structure. Nevertheless, MS does not provide good friability in tablets.